HAZARD RECOGNITION TEST
  1. In mainline pipe sections or strung joints in proximity to power transmission lines,where is the induced voltage most often found to be potentially lethal and/or bad enough to cause havoc with your welding parameters? Answer
  2. How have workers suffered severely debilitating finger injuries…a) Marking pipe as a swamper on the bending machine? b) On a final tie in crew tightening flange bolts with a hammer wrench? Answer
  3. What chain of events will cause a worker to be crushed on the walking deck of a stringing truck? What procedure should you be utilizing to prevent this? Answer
  4. Why should you never use a 90º elbow when blowing down a test section? Answer
  5. Specifically, what hazard makes it necessary that welders wear hard hats in the welding shacks? Answer
  6. What hazards exist that mandate a boom hand be required to wear a hard hat? Answer
  7. List twenty hazards that you can be exposed to on the right of way which require you wear safety glasses? Answer
  8. List ten hazards that you can be exposed to on the right of way which require you to wear gloves? Answer
  9. What personal protective equipment is uniquely required when working on a prep crew, handling metal shavings? Answer
  10. When cross-hauling booms on low bed, what extra precaution, with regard to equipment controls, should the trucker take, and why? Answer
  11. When an operator first gets on a winch line Cat what procedure, step by step,should he use to check his winch line and what precautions should he take with respect to the winch line? Answer
  12. What injuries can a worker sustain, when crossing a very muddy right of way, in knee-high mud, on foot, such as at a river crossing. Answer
  13. How can a discharge hose from a water pump cause a head injury? Answer
  14. What are the hazards involved in use of electric water pumps? Answer
  15. The effect of electrical shock on the human body is determined by what three main factors? Answer
  16. What is a C Dolly? Answer
  17. What minimum six checks should a low bed trucker's walk-around include every morning before leaving yard? Answer
  18. When feeding pipe into front of bending machine, why must you stand clear of pipe opening? Answer
  19. What is the best type of tag line for use in proximity to power lines with respect to insulating properties? Answer
  20. When parking a vehicle on the right of way, in proximity to heavy equipment, what rule of thumb will ensure your vehicle will not be damaged by the heavy equipment? Answer
  21. How can a worker break his leg helping to rig up a dozer blade, and how can you prevent this common injury? Answer
  22. When pulling a creek or river section with deep unsafe ditch on the going outside, how do you attach a sling to the boom load line hook, without having to sending a worker into the unsafe ditch? Answer
  23. How have mechanics setting the brakes on boom draw-works winch drums, in the pastin suffered severe pelvic crush injuries? Answer
  24. At end of winter work and prior to summer work starting, what equipment should you remove from the hoes and dozers? Answer
  25. If the operator bumps the levers getting out of his seat in a new hydraulically operated side boom, what can occur? Answer
  26. List eight potential hazards that may be encountered while installing pipeline screw anchors? Answer
  27. What must workers on a Fiber Optic foreign line crossing crew know to avoid serious injury when handling the glass fiber optic cable? What accident prevention guidelines should be adhered to? Answer
  28. What are the Helicopter Safety basic rules? Answer
  29. What are the physical properties of H2S that make it so dangerous to pipeline construction workers? Answer
  30. Is Natural Gas (NGL) vapor visible? How do you detect the presence of a leak? Answer
  31. What hazards do radio transmissions present to the transportation of electric blasting caps? What precautions should be taken? Answer
  32. Exposure to welding fumes, particularly ozone, causes what illnesses in welders? How do you detect the presence of ozone? What personal protective equipmentis effective in mitigating this hazard? Answer 

ANSWERS

  1. The induced voltage is determined by the amount of current carried by the power line, the geometric configuration of the pipeline in relation to transmission line, and the length of the pipeline paralleling the transmission line. The highest induced voltage readings are commonly found in the first few joints of a section as it veers away from the power line right of way after having run parallel to the power line for some distance.
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  2. a) By grabbing for the marking crayon as it rolls on the horizontal surface of the die into the space between the die and the pipe. Avoid injury: Always weld a tray/receptacle for the crayon on the side of the bending machine.
    b) When using a hammer wrench a glancing blow of the sledge hammer is a common cause of crushed/broken fingers. Make sure you have the correct size wrench and the wrench is held firmly so it doesn't spring back causing a glancing blow. Make sure the worker swinging the sledge hammer has somewhere solid and comfortable to stand. If you are in a hurry, you are likely to cause an injury.
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  3. The standard procedure is to place the rear hook first then the forward hook. If the tractor operator lifts the joint free and hasn't finished centering, or roads forward prematurely, when he makes his lift, the pipe joint can rock forward into the headache rack crushing anyone in its path. The forward hooker must quickly step out of the pinch point and/or get down from the walking deck after placing the forward hook. If he remains in that pinch area on the walking deck between the headache rack and the pipe, he can sustain a severe abdominal crush injury. The procedure that may be required is: Place the forward end/headache rack hook before the rear hook is placed. The forward hooker must be off the walking deck of pipe truck and on the ground before signal is given for boom to center and lift the pipe joint – however this can create a hazard as the boom hand’s attention will be focused over his shoulder instead of forward.
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  4. Pressure can twist it off and turn it into a lethal projectile. 45's are better, but the safest blow-down is a straight up nipple.
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  5. Repeated tightening / hot-expansion, cold-contraction, has caused bands to break -welding bug will fall and hit you on the head. Don't tighten bands too much - only snugly. Welders must wear a hard hat when inspecting the weld. Expect the bug to fall.
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  6. Pin can come out of upper block and fall and strike operator on the head. Swamp weight bridle can bounce off the load line hook even with safety latch engaged. Cable can break and fall on the operator. Boom can snap from work hardening (particularly long stick booms) aggravated by brittleness due to extreme cold temperatures.
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  7. 1) When close to the welding arc,
    2) when buffing,
    3) when grinding,
    4) when drilling,
    5) when using a sledge or ball peen hammer pounding on: hammer wrench,
    6) pipe clamps,
    7) pins,
    8) when in proximity to hoe rock hammer, 9) hydro-ax,
    10) feller buncher,
    11) hydrovac,
    12) when sandblasting,
    13) when power sawing,
    14) when mowing,
    15) when chiseling,
    16) when painting,
    17) when spraying,
    18) when handling chemicals,
    19) when gas cutting,
    20) when using power tools.
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  8. Be sure to wear gloves when 1) handling tie wire, 2) hot patch sticks, 3) banana knife, 4) wire rope, 5) chains for drag bucket, 6) sharp shot-rock after a blast 7) exhaust of compressor, 8) skids 9) when opening sealed cans of welding rod and 10) When air testing, and two inch iron is very hot.
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  9. Filleting gloves or meat cutting steel lined gloves must be worn when handling metal shavings on prep crew.
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  10. Trucker must get up on the tractor to make sure the boom dog is engaged and the boom brake is set to the proper tension. If not, the blocks may drop onto the pavement, the wire rope will be cut by abrasion and the bottom blocks will fall off onto pavement. On public roads the potential for injury to public is high.
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  11. Hook onto another tractor, and pull the winch line out all the way to check the condition on the line. Pull the line in by winching his own tractor (in neutral) back toward the deadman tractor. Turn/cock his own tractor slightly sideways while watching the line on the drum to ensure the incoming line lays snug up against the previous lay. When laying the line on the drum, pull on something hard, to ensure you pull straight and the line lays on the drum correctly. Cocking his tractor slightly allows each lay to lay snug up against the previous lay. The terminal end should be a factory swage, not a stopper knot. Make sure no one is close to the line when it is under tension. Cat tractors with winch lines should have steel wire guard behind the  operator's seat to protect the operator.
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  12. The mud and suction grabbing at the worker's feet and his forward motion can cause hyper-extension of the knee with resulting serious ligament damage. This results from your foot getting anchored in the mud and your body momentum carrying you forward. Avoid Injury in heavily muddy conditions by carefully planning your route across the R.O.W. and going slowly - don't lunge or rush through the mud - slow down.
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  13. When unhooking a discharge hose from a water pump, the stiff hose once broken free, can spring out of control and the metal coupling can strike the worker in the face causing a serious head injury.
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  14. The danger in working with electrical water pumps is being exposed to electrical currents through cracks in the pump housing and cracks or abrasions in the insulation of the electrical cord. If a worker grabs a defective power cord to move or adjust the pump's position he can sustain an injury ranging from a slight electrical shock to a fatal electrocution. The leaking electricity takes a shortcut to ground through the worker's body.

    Safety Precautions to take:

    • Visually inspect cables regularly - the hazard is energized damaged.
    • Workers must not handle the cables when the pumps are running. Cut the power before moving the cables - Ensure the generator is shut down or power to the pump is turned off before handling the high voltage cables
    • Badly damaged cables should be brought to the attention of maintenance staff immediately to replace or repair
    • Cables stretched out over the R.O.W. should be protected from being run over by vehicles or equipment. Often skids laid on each side of the cable is not sufficient, as they get displaced. Skids should be accompanied by a small berm on both sides to hold the skids in place
    • Ensure the pumps in use on your crew are equipped with Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI). These devices should be on the generators. GFCIs on rental electrical pump units sometimes are incorporated into a remote switch. Be aware that these GFCI remote applications afford no protection to the hot chord from the remote switch to the generator.

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  15. 1) How much current is flowing through the body.
    2) The path of current through the body.
    3) How long the body is in the circuit. Effects can range from a slight tingle to cardiac arrest. There is no exact way to predict the injury at any given amperage.
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  16. A trailer converter dolly, with a frame rigid in the horizontal plane that is towed from two hitches located in a horizontal transverse line on the towing unit, that precludes any rotation in the horizontal plane about the hitch points.
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  17. 1) Check wheel hub seals for oil level.
    2) Check rims for cracks near lug nuts.
    3) Check trailer frame for cracks, particularly the back end: beavertail and bolsters.
    4) Check tires for integrity.
    5) Check brakes - apply brakes in cab and check for air leaks near axles.
    6) Check that tires, skids & dunnage are chained down and there is no loose mud or debris on deck.
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  18. Because the reach rod will come out of the pipe and hit you in the face or chest.
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  19. Polyester, polyethylene or polypropylene.
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  20. Never park a vehicle close to heavy equipment where you don't have eye contact with the operator. If you can't see the operator's eyes, the operator in his seat can't see you or your vehicle.
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  21. Don’t try to force the articulating ball stud on the side arm into the eye on the C-frame by pushing or leaning with your body, knee or leg against the side arm. The operator will have to tilt and rattle the blade until the ball stud slips in easily. This maneuvering of the blade can cause the pin to be ejected with considerable force. When this has occurred in the past, those untrained workers who were not clear of the side arm swing area ended up with broken legs. The side arm swings out and down, pins you to the ground and crushes your leg. Take the following safety precautions: Standing back, away from the swing area of the side arm, position the ball stud with outstretched hand, ready to step clear if necessary. You can’t manually force the ball stud into the eye on the C-frame. If you don't know what to do stay away - watch and learn. Leave it to the mechanic and his experienced helper.
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  22. Hook a short wire rope sling to the pulling head, then the dozer winch line to the sling. This enables you to use a hoe bucket to hook up the pulling line, and then to attach the sling to a boom load line hook, rather than sending a worker into unsafe ditch.
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  23. When making adjustments by leaning over on the right side of the fuel tank, the mechanic catches the hydraulic lever for the counterweights with his hip engaging the control. As the counterweights come up, his hip successively puts more pressure on the lever. Quickly a point of no return is reached. The more the counterweights come up, the mechanic becomes less able to extract himself. He becomes trapped and is slowly crushed. Safety precautions to take: When a boom hand or a mechanic are setting the brakes on the draw-works winch drums, always de-energize the equipment.
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  24. The cold weather starting fluid, ethyl ether, canisters. Storage and use of these canisters is restricted to temperatures below 160º F. In the summer after shift when the equipment is shut down, temperatures in the engine and battery compartments, without fans running, can easily exceed 160º F. These canisters have been known to explode in the heat, igniting lathe and oily rags stored in a battery compartment. The subsequent fire has burned a hoe to the ground - a total loss.
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  25. The brake is a hydraulically operated disc brake. If the operator bumps the free fall lever getting out of his seat, the load will fall unless the safety latches are set to lock the free fall lever. The brake can be released with the engine stopped or running.
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  26. 1) Clothing may be caught on rotating anchor shafts or anchor drive units.
    2) Anchor shaft may bend or buckle.
    3) Using substandard parts creates the risk of fractured metal fragments becoming airborne and injuring an employee.
    4) Trench walls may cave in.
    5) Workers may fall into pump-out sumps.
    6) Anchors may hit underground facilities.
    7) Installation equipment may contact overhead power lines.
    8) Back injuries from lifting screw anchor components. Safety Precautions to take:

    • Torque parameters must not be exceeded
    • Workers must not attempt to hold or guide the screw anchor during installation.
    • Workers shall stay at least 1.0 meter away from the anchor while the anchor is rotating.
    • Screw anchors shall not be installed at a rate, revolutions per minute, in excess manufacturer's installation specifications.
    • Downward pressure on the screw anchor shall not exceed 10% of the maximum torque rating of the anchor shaft.
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  27. The glass fibers in the fiber optics cable are very sharp when broken and will penetrate the skin very easily. Broken small bits of glass fiber are almost invisible. The light rays from an energized fiber optics cable are laser beams, which can cause eye damage. Accident Prevention Guidelines:

    • Eye protection must be worn at all times when working with optical fiber.
    • Wear gloves when handling the fiber optics cable.
    • Avoid any hand contact with your eyes while working with glass fiber optic cable. Wipe your hands on a handy-wipe and wash them prior to contact with eyes.
    • Always wash your hands thoroughly before coffee and lunch breaks.
    • Do not look into the end of the fiber - the laser/light rays may cause eye damage.
    • Do not handle pieces of cut or broken fiber with your bare fingers. Use duct/vinyl tape to pick up and discard any loose fiber ends.
    • Avoid situations that would allow any part of your body to come into contact with the end of glass fibers. Glass fibers are very sharp when broken and will penetrate the skin very easily. This will cause serious irritation and once inside the body they are undetectable even with an x-ray. Keep fingers away from the end of a fiber.
    • I there is any suspicion of a glass fiber chip in the eye, seek medical attention immediately.
    • Use and adhere to the procedure provided for the handling of glass fiber optic cable.
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  28. a. Always approach and depart from the front, so you are visible to the pilot at all times and to avoid the tail rotor which is closer to the ground.
    b. Take precautions and crouch over when in the vicinity of helicopters.
    c. Never raise anything above your head.
    d. Never carry tools upright or over your shoulder.
    e. Never throw equipment from or around a helicopter. Any object which strikes the rotors, not only damages the unit but becomes a projectile.
    f. Protect yourself from down-wash, noise and flying debris.
    g. Obtain the pilot's approval before boarding the aircraft.
    h. Don't slam doors. They are light alloy and will bend.
    i. Fasten seat belts and keep them on during flight.
    j. Do not smoke.
    k. Do not move around, especially in light helicopters.
    l. Hold onto your gear at all times. Keep your gear and yourself well clear of foot and hand controls. Unnecessary force or pressure on the controls could restrict the pilot's ability to operate the unit properly.
    k. Secure loose articles, if doors have been removed or windows open, for the flight. They could be sucked into turbines or rotors.
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  29. Physical State - Normally encountered as a gas.
    Color - Colorless - no visible sign of H2S to warn you of its presence
    Odor - Smells like "rotten eggs" in low concentrations. Continued exposure eliminates your ability to smell the gas - giving you a false sense that the danger has passed. Do not rely on your sense of smell.
    Vapor Density - Heavier than air. It may flow or settle into the low areas of an excavation or natural depression.
    Flammability - Forms an explosive mixture with air or oxygen
    Solubility - Dissolves in water or oil and is released when the liquid is agitated, such as when wading through water in a bell hole.
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  30. NGL Vapor is invisible. However a leak may create sufficient refrigeration to condense water vapor in air, giving the effect of a steam cloud in the immediate vicinity of the leak.
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  31. All available evidence indicates that radio is not a hazard in the transportation of electric blasting caps so long as they are in their original containers. This is because the wires are then coiled or folded, in a manner which provides highly effective protection against current induction. Furthermore, almost all pipeline truck bodies are made of metal and this virtually eliminates the penetration of RF energy. If vehicles equipped with radio transmitters are used in transporting electric blasting caps to or from a job, it is recommended that a) they be carried in a closed metal box, and b) the transmitter be turned off when the caps are either being put into or taken out of the box. To protect against shock and friction, the metal box should be lined with a soft material such as wood or sponge rubber.
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  32. Pulmonary edema, emphysema, diminished mental capacity, loss of sex drive and motor neuron disease. Even at contamination levels of only a few parts per million, and exposures of only a few hours, ozone is a powerful irritant to the entire respiratory tract, and has been implicated in the development of fluid in the lungs of workers who have been exposed. High exposures have proven fatal.
    Initial symptoms afflicting a worker include a severe dryness and irritation of the throat, possibly combined with headaches, fatigue and lung congestion. In fact, the respiratory irritations we associate with smog are the primary effects of ozone. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to tell if you are in an ozone contaminated environment The odor-warning properties of ozone make detection of this gas a relatively easy task- That acrid "electric" smell when lightning strikes, or a power cord sparks is ozone. Since ozone is a gas, standard dust/fume/mist filter respirators, which offer excellent protection from welding particulates are not effective. However, respirators with a thin layer of activated carbon in a welding fume respirator offer effective protection against low levels of ozone contamination.
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